It's that time of year--the
leaves are almost done falling, the time has fallen back an
hour, and some parts of the country are looking forward to ice,
snow, and freezing cold temperatures. Now's the time to snuggle
up in front of a fireplace with a warm kitty on your lap or a
puppy at your feet. But before you settle down to your long
winter's nap, take some time to learn how to keep those animals
as warm and comfortable as you are.
Cold weather can be hard on pets, just like it can be hard on
people. Sometimes owners forget that their pets are just as
accustomed to the warm shelter of the indoors as they are. Some
owners will leave their animals outside for extended periods of
time, thinking that all animals are adapted to live outdoors.
This can put their pets in danger of serious illness. There are
things you can do to keep your animal warm and safe.
- Take your animals for a winter check-up before winter
kicks in. Your veterinarian can check to make sure they don't
have any medical problems that will make them more vulnerable
to the cold.
- Keep your pets inside as much as you can when the mercury
drops. If you have to take them out, stay outside with them.
When you're cold enough to go inside, they probably are too.
If you absolutely must leave them outside for a significant
length of time, make sure they have a warm, solid shelter
against the wind, thick bedding, and plenty of non-frozen
water. Try leaving out a hot water bottle, wrapped in a towel
so it won't burn your pet's skin.
- Some animals can remain outside safely longer in the
winter than others. In some cases, it's just common sense:
long-haired breeds like Huskies will do better in cold weather
than short-haired breeds like Dachshunds. Cats and small dogs
that have to wade shoulder-deep in the snow will feel the cold
sooner than larger animals. Your pet's health will also affect
how long she can stay out. Conditions like diabetes, heart
disease, kidney disease, and hormonal imbalances can
compromise a pet's ability to regulate her own body heat.
Animals that are not generally in good health shouldn't be
exposed to winter weather for a long period of time. Very
young and very old animals are vulnerable to the cold as well.
Regardless of their health, though, no pets should stay
outside for unlimited amounts of time in freezing cold
weather. If you have any questions about how long your pet
should be out this winter, ask your veterinarian.
- Cats will curl up against almost anything to stay
warm--including car engines. Cats caught in moving engine
parts can be seriously hurt or killed. Before you turn your
engine on, check beneath the car or make a lot of noise by
honking the horn or rapping on the hood.
- If you live near a pond or lake, be very cautious about
letting your rambunctious dog off the leash. Animals can
easily fall through the ice, and it is very difficult for them
to escape on their own. If you must let your dogs loose near
open water, stay with them at all times.
- If you light a fire or plug in a space heater to keep your
home toasty warm, remember that the heat will be as attractive
to your pets as to you. As your dog or cat snuggles up to the
warmth, keep an eye out to make sure that no tails or paws
come in contact with flames, heating coils, or hot surfaces.
Pets can either burn themselves or knock a heat source over
and put the entire household in danger.
- It's a good idea to have your furnace checked for carbon
monoxide leakage before you turn it on, both for your pets'
health and your own. Carbon monoxide is odorless and
invisible, but it can cause problems ranging from headaches
and fatigue to trouble breathing. Pets generally spend more
time in the home than owners, particularly in the winter, so
they are more vulnerable to monoxide poisoning than the rest
of the family.
- Pets that go outside can pick up rock salt, ice, and
chemical ice melts in their foot pads. To keep your pet's pads
from getting chapped and raw, wipe her feet with a washcloth
when she comes inside. This will also keep her from licking
the salt off her feet, which could cause an inflammation of
her digestive tract.
- If left alone outside, dogs and cats can be very
resourceful in their search for warm shelter. They can dig
into snow banks or hide under porches or in dumpsters, window
wells, or cellars, and they can occasionally get trapped.
Watch them closely when they are loose outdoors, and provide
them with quality, easily accessible shelter.
- Keep an eye on your pet's water. Sometimes owners don't
realize that a water bowl has frozen and their pet can't get
anything to drink. Animals that don't have access to clean,
unfrozen water are more likely to drink out of puddles or
gutters, which can be polluted with oil, antifreeze, household
cleaners, and other chemicals.
- Be particularly gentle with elderly and arthritic pets
during the winter. The cold can leave their joints extremely
stiff and tender, and they may become more awkward than usual.
Stay directly below these pets when they are climbing stairs
or jumping onto furniture; consider modifying their
environment to make it easier for them to get around. Make
sure they have a thick, soft bed in a warm room for the chilly
nights. Also, watch stiff and arthritic pets if you walk them
outside; a bad slip on the ice could be very painful and cause
a significant injury.
- Go ahead and put that sweater on Princess, if she'll put
up with it. It will help a little, but you can't depend on it
entirely to keep her warm. Pets lose most of their body heat
from the pads of their feet, their ears, and their respiratory
tract. The best way to guard your animals against the cold is
keeping a close eye on them to make sure they're comfortable.
When you're outside with your pets during the winter, you can
watch them for signs of discomfort with the cold. If they whine,
shiver, seem anxious, slow down or stop moving, or start to look
for warm places to burrow, they're saying they want to get back
You can also keep an eye out for two serious conditions
caused by cold weather. The first and less common of the two is
frostbite. Frostbite happens when an animal's (or a person's)
body gets cold and pulls all the blood from the extremities to
the center of the body to stay warm. The animal's ears, paws, or
tail can get cold enough that ice crystals can form in the
tissue and damage it. The tricky thing about frostbite is that
it's not immediately obvious. The tissue doesn't show signs of
the damage to it for several days.
If you suspect your pet may have frostbite, bring her into a
warm environment right away. You can soak her extremities in
warm water for about 20 minutes to melt the ice crystals and
restore circulation. It's important that you don't rub the
frostbitten tissue, however--the ice crystals can do a lot of
damage to the tissue. Once your pet is warm, wrap her up in some
blankets and take her to the veterinarian. Your veterinarian can
assess the damage and treat your pet for pain or infection if
Hypothermia, or a body temperature that is below normal, is a
condition that occurs when an animal is not able to keep her
body temperature from falling below normal. It happens when
animals spend too much time in cold temperatures, or when
animals with poor health or circulation are exposed to cold. In
mild cases, animals will shiver and show signs of depression,
lethargy, and weakness. As the condition progresses, an animal's
muscles will stiffen, her heart and breathing rates will slow
down, and she will stop responding to stimuli.
If you notice these symptoms, you need to get your pet warm
and take her to your veterinarian. You can wrap her in blankets,
possibly with a hot water bottle or an electric blanket--as
always, wrapped in fabric to prevent against burning the skin.
In severe cases, your veterinarian can monitor her heart rate
and blood pressure and give warm fluids through an IV.
Winter can be a beautiful time of year. It can be a dangerous
time as well, but it certainly doesn't have to be. If you take
some precautions, you and your pet can have a fabulous time
taking in the icicles, the snow banks, and the warm, glowing
fire at the end of the day.
provided by the American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA).
Visit the AAHA pet owner Web site at
www.healthypet.com for more pet care advice and to find an
AAHA-accredited veterinary hospital near you.